Medical sponge is a software that has absorbent and antiseptic properties, in addition to stimulates tissue regeneration and is utilized in surgical procedure, neurosurgery, dentistry, otolaryngology and gynecology to cease blood loss or to shut wound surfaces (burns, trophic ulcers). To summarize the knowledge of the skilled literature on medical (hemostatic) sponges, their classification and functions, the areas of their use in medical observe and likewise fashionable excipients and energetic pharmaceutical substances that can be utilized of their know-how.
The purpose of the examine was to summarize information on the traits, classification of medical sponges, auxiliary substances and energetic pharmaceutical substances used within the know-how of those brokers and medical use. Regardless of the creation and analysis of a lot of medical sponges primarily based on gelatin, chitosan, cellulose derivatives, collagen and different excipients, in addition to the scientific demonstration of their efficacy and wish to be used, medical sponges are nonetheless want refinement and additional examine. Due to it, the seek for the right basis to create common medical sponge remains to be ongoing.
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is among the commonest and debilitating degenerative joint illnesses worldwide. Whereas radiography is essentially the most generally used imaging modality, it’s related to drawbacks which newer modalities corresponding to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound might overcome. Nonetheless, the position of imaging in scientific observe and analysis in knee OA has not been clearly outlined. Moreover, tips on imaging in knee OA from totally different authoritative our bodies haven’t been in contrast in earlier research. Subsequently, the current overview goals to summarise current proof and evaluate tips on the usage of totally different imaging modalities in evaluating knee OA. There is no such thing as a broad consensus on the worth of imaging in sufferers with typical OA presentation.
If imaging is required, present proof and scientific tips help the usage. Discrepancies exist relating to the usage of various imaging modalities together with ultrasound, computed tomography and nuclear drugs.
Scientometric analysis of extremely cited scientists within the subject of forensic science and authorized drugs
A publically obtainable database of essentially the most extremely cited scientists in all disciplines was used to establish folks that belonged to the topic class “forensic science and authorized drugs.” This bibliometric data was derived from Elsevier’s SCOPUS database containing eight million scientists with a minimum of 5 articles as creator or co-author.
The highest 100,000 most extremely cited scientists have been recognized and ranked in keeping with six quotation metrics; complete variety of citations, H-index, H-index adjusted for co-authorship, citations to single-authored papers, citations to single or first creator papers and, citations to single, first, or last-authored papers. The eight million entries within the SCOPUS database have been sub-divided into 22 most important topic classes and 176 sub-categories, considered one of which was authorized and forensic drugs. The quotation databases have been supplied as supplementary materials in two articles revealed in PLoS Biology in 2019 and 2020.
Among the many high 100,000 most extremely cited scientists, there have been solely 30 allotted to the authorized and forensic drugs class, in keeping with the 2019 PLoS Biology article. The up to date database from 2020 additionally included the names of individuals inside the top-cited 2% of their scientific self-discipline. This elevated the variety of forensic practitioners to 215 from a complete of 10,158 people on this topic class. This text takes a more in-depth take a look at these extremely cited forensic scientists, the nations the place they work, the actual analysis subject wherein they publish, and their composite quotation scores with and with out self-citations. The highest ten most cited people in each databases (2019 and 2020) have been the identical and these ought to subsequently be thought of an elite group amongst all forensic practitioners.
Trade, specialists and the position of the ‘invisible school’ within the dissemination of non-invasive prenatal testing within the US
Enthusiasm for so-called ‘personalised’ or ‘precision’ drugs has inspired the expansion of the molecular diagnostics business and the proliferation of high-priced proprietary checks that may predict, diagnose or inform the therapy of numerous scientific situations. By way of a case examine of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT), we discover how the mechanisms governing the event and dissemination of this novel prenatal screening take a look at are most aptly understood as a ‘regulatory regime.’
We describe how non-public actors tied to the producers of this take a look at kind a community of “specialists” that contribute to the coordination of this regime by advantage of their efforts to navigate the governance of take a look at adoption and likewise kind areas wherein the requirements governing take a look at adoption are developed. We draw consideration to personal actors on this regime to reveal that they’re a constitutive ingredient of the general public coverage system governing biomedical innovation and adoption.
By way of this case examine of NIPT we deepen our earlier evaluation of the position of consultants in navigating and shaping a regulatory regime (Holloway and Miller, 2020) and supply new perception about how scientists work with consultants to form a regulatory regime that serves business pursuits.